Unauthorized Entry & Re-entry Prosecutions
The laws used to criminally prosecute people for entering and reentering the United States without permission are known as Sections 1325 ("illegal entry") and 1326 ("illegal reentry") of Chapter 8 of the U.S. Code. For decades, these laws have been used to advance racist, anti-immigrant policy goals.
8 U.S.C. §§ 1325 and 1326 were passed in the late 1920s during the height of the eugenics movement to further racist and white supremacist ideology, and the racist intentions of the laws are still felt today. Justice Department data shows how prosecutions for unauthorized reentry disparately impact Mexican and Latinx individuals: roughly 94 percent of people prosecuted for unauthorized reentry in fiscal years 2020-21 were from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador.
While the Trump administration weaponized these laws to new heights — using them to block asylum seekers and separate families — such laws have been used in discriminatory manner since their enactment and continue to cause harm today under the Biden administration. Ending §§ 1325 and 1326 prosecutions is essential to ending systemic injustices, reducing mass incarceration, keeping families together, and protecting fundamental human rights.
Prosecutions for entry and reentry violations bring together the civil and criminal immigration legal systems in ways that exacerbate racial and ethnic discrimination. While immigration violations are considered civil offenses, §§ 1325 and 1326 are misdemeanor and felony violations, respectively, in the criminal context. Under federal law, people who enter or reenter the United States without authorization are subject not only to civil immigration detention and deportation proceedings but also to criminal sanctions. In other words, after being charged with § 1326, for example, an individual with prior convictions could be put in federal prison for up to a 20-year sentence. After completing their sentence, these individuals are often picked up by ICE, and subsequently deported for the same crime.
In recent years, people charged with §§ 1325 and 1326 have been challenging the law based on the fact Congress enacted it for overtly racist purposes. Last year, in a landmark decision, a judge in the District of Nevada ruled that § 1326 is indeed unconstitutional. However, the government appealed this decision.
On March 21, 2022 the National Immigration Project (NIPNLG), the National Immigrant Justice Center (NIJC), and other legal advocacy organizations filed a friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios to demonstrate the systemic harm caused by such prosecutions.
Rooted in Racism: The Human Impact of Migrant Prosecutions highlights trends and stories of people prosecuted for unauthorized entry or reentry under 8 U.S.C. § 1325 and § 1326, and the implementation and enforcement practices of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and the federal courts. The stories are based on a survey of legal practitioners and community advocates that
the National Immigration Project conducted in July 2021. They demonstrate the extreme
inhumanity of these laws, and the pressing need to repeal them.
Download the report »
- Practice Advisory: Advocacy Strategies After United States v. Palomar-Santiago (November 24, 2021)
- Equal Protection Challenges to Prosecutions Under 1325 & 1326: The Groundbreaking Decision in United States v Carillo-Lopez (December 2021)
- NIPNLG, NIJC friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Amador-Bonilla (August 3, 2022)
- NIPNLG, NIJC friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios (March 21, 2022)
- NILC, Latino Justice friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios (March 21, 2022)
- Historians 1952, 1996 friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios (March 21, 2022)
- Historians 1929, 1952 friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios (March 21, 2022)
- Asian Americans Advancing Justice friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios (March 21, 2022)
- Aoki, UCLA, SPLC reenactments friend-of-the-court brief in United States v. Rodrigues-Barios (March 21, 2022)